8 - CHAPTER

National minorities and integration policy

Author: Triin Pohla

Key topics

  • There haven’t been significant unforeseeable changes in integration policy in 2018–2019: the planned and complementary activities will continue
  • In Estonia the chasm persists between the Estonian and Russian language speaking communities in education, labour market, living environment, media consumption, etc.
  • The increase in migration volumes and diversification of immigration groups and short-term forms of migration are becoming one of the biggest challenges in migration and integration.

Political and institutional developments

On the political and institutional level, in 2018–2019 the main course has been based on the development plan approved by the government in 2014 called “Integrating Estonia 2020”,[1] which, in addition to integrating Estonian-speaking permanent residents and residents with other mother tongues also  focused on supporting the adaption and integration of new immigrants. As a new target group for integration the state has in recent years started to provide more attention and more services to persons returning to Estonia,[2] there has been discussion on application of foreign students who have acquired higher education in Estonia and their stay in Estonia.[3]

In 2018 the Ministry of Culture started preparations for the new state integration plan “Integrating Estonia 2030”, which is a continuation of the integration development plan “Integrating Estonia 2020”, which was approved by the government in 2014. The new plan articulates the goals of the Estonian state’s integration policy and the actions for achieving them for 2021–2030. A number of seminars and brainstorming mornings were organised in the first half of 2019 in order to collect input for the development plan, but composing of the final text has fallen behind the planned timetable. Coordination and adoption of the draft development plan at the government of the republic and approval of the programmes by the Minister of Culture are intended to take place in the third quarter of 2020.[4]

Legislative developments

In 2018 the Aliens Act was amended on two occasions. On May 2nd the draft act 590 SE was passed, which incorporated the EU directive on students and researchers in the Aliens Act, which simplifies movement of scientist and students from third countries within the EU.[5] On June 13th Riigikogu passed the act amending the Aliens Act and other related acts (617 SE). The act amended the immigration quota, excluding from it the top specialists; it introduced the A2 level Estonian language proficiency requirement for foreigners who have resided in Estonia for at least five years on a temporary residence permit for work and wish to apply for a new residence permit or extend an existing residence permit; and extended the maximum period of short-term employment from nine months to one year, in order to alleviate the labour shortage caused by the cyclical development of the economy.[6]

On 12 September 2018 the amendments to the Citizenship Act were passed, which aimed to extend the opportunities to study Estonian to persons wishing to acquire Estonian citizenship (629 SE). The state will offer persons who have legally resided in Estonia the opportunity to conclude a language learning agreement, offering people a one-off free Estonian instruction from level zero up to the independent language user level of B1.[7]

Court practice

The Administrative Law Chamber stated in its 2 March 2018 judgment (case 3-16-1810),[8] that the descendants of persons opting into Estonian citizenship in Russia after the Tartu Peace Treaty are not Estonian citizens if the act of opting was not followed by taking up residence in the independent Estonia. The working group of law researchers from University of Tartu who analysed the issue of citizenship of Abkhazian residents also came to the conclusion that the descendants of Abkhazian Estonians who did not come to Estonia after the conclusion of Tartu Peace Treaty are not Estonian citizens by birth.[9] The judgment of the Supreme Court and the research results of the scientists from University of Tartu affect about a hundred persons who have mistakenly been granted Estonian citizenship on an exp post basis according to the judgment. One of such people affected by the Police and Border Guard Board change in practice of obtaining citizenship by opting in was Alli Rutto, whose 15 October 2018 open letter[10] once again raised the question of double standards in multiple citizenship issues (see more under subheading 6 “Noteworthy public discussions”)

Statistics and surveys

The National Audit Office’s audit[11] published in august of 2019 gives organisation of Estonian language studies a poor rating: “The National Audit Office finds that the organisation of publicly funded Estonian language learning for adults is fragmented, the amount of training does not meet the need, there is a severe shortage of qualified teachers and the funding of training significantly depends on the funds provided by the Estonian Unemployment Insurance Fund and the support of the European Union. Finding solutions to problems has been thwarted as there is no clear substantive leader or a person responsible for development in the field, there is no systemic coordination of activities between the relevant national authorities.”[12] Several other recently published surveys point out the same problems.[13]

Several important summaries and publications on the topic have been published or are about to be published in the course of the RITA-RÄNNE project, which helps develop scientifically founded innovative approaches to managing migration and integration processes in Estonia. Thematic summaries of the theoretical framework of multiculturalism,[14] multiple identity[15] and conceptual foundations of society and integration cover the basic foundations of integration.[16]

In 2018–2019 two surveys were published on the Estonian Romas’ sense of belonging, inclusion and participating in society.[17] In cooperation with the Central European University, the Estonian Human Rights Centre is compiling two more surveys in 2019 on inclusion of Romas in politics and on implementation of measures in Estonia.[18] The Eurydice comparative report on integration of foreign students into the school systems in European countries,[19] the International Organization for Migration (IOM) report on adaptation of foreigners in Estonian local governments[20] and an interim evaluation of the implementation of ESF adaptation and integration measure[21] were also published in 2019. The results of an InterNations survey of people living abroad in 64 countries published in September of 2019 show that foreigners that have come to Estonia are satisfied with the e-state and services here, but it is difficult to adapt to the life outside of work.[22]

In addition to the abovementioned, a number of new significant studies and analyses will be published in autumn of 2019, for example, the Estonian Human Development Report 2018/2019,[23] Work in Estonia’s target groups’ survey of the foreign recruitment process experience and satisfaction, the Institute of Baltic Studies’ analysis of new immigrants’ adaptation in Estonia,[24] the Ministry of Culture’s mapping out of integration and adaptation services offered to persons of other nationalities, Estonians, national companions and returnees, etc.

Good practices

In 2018 and 2019 a number of new and exciting solutions in the field of language learning have emerged. Four new applications have been created as new language learning tools: Speakly,[25] WalkTalk,[26] Multikey[27] and Käänuk.[28]

Various support services aimed at companies recruiting foreigners, and other stakeholders can also be pointed out as examples of good practices: such as the Institute of Baltic Studies’ and Work in Estonia’s application demonstrating recruiting foreign labour step-by-step,[29] the support network for adaptation of new immigrants (an information list and support network meetings) that is coordinated by the Ministry of the Interior, and the network of employers ran by Work in Estonia and the Estonian Chamber of Commerce in order to support foreign recruitment.[30]

Since 2018 the state offers companies foreign recruitment support,[31] which aims to alleviate the shortage of top-level specialists in Estonia. Since 2019 the Integration Foundation offers a counselling service to persons returning to Estonia, [32] and families with children who have stayed abroad for a long time are able to apply for a socio-economic return allowance.[33] Ülemiste city and its development activities also stand out as a promising practice: construction of an apartment building, International House of Estonia[34] that provides consultation services and Ülemiste Health Centre that in 2019 provides family physician’s services in foreign languages.[35]

Noteworthy public discussions

Issues relating to citizenship have arisen in public debates nearly every year in the past decade. In 2018 the issue of an Abkhazian Estonian’s Alli Rutto’s legality of citizenship at birth, and issuing of a new passport to replace the expired one proved a test for the Ministry of the Interior and grabbed the attention of the public.[36] On one hand, the people were explained the Police and Border Guard’s administrative practice, the 2018 judgment of the Supreme Court and findings of an analysis of law researchers at University of Tartu, according to which the descendants of optants who did not settle in Estonia should be treated as foreigners (see subheading 3 „Court practice“). On the other hand, the President,[37] the Chancellor of Justice,[38] as well as many politicians[39] found it unfair that people had to suffer because of the state’s mistake. Alli Rutto’s case found a temporary solution in December, when the Police and Border Guard Board decided to issue a new Estonian citizen’s passport for a period of two years.[40] The legal confusion concerning citizenship of Abkhazian Estonians still awaits a solution: the draft drawn up in the Ministry of the Interior in 2019 recommends, as an exception, allowing multiple citizenship for Abhkazian Estonians, but Minister of the Interior Mart Helme does not agree with providing such an opportunity.[41]

In the early morning of Monday, 7 January 2019 posters appeared at the Hobujaama tram stop in Tallinn saying “Here only Estonians” and “Here only Russians” in Estonian and Russian.[42] The ad campaign of the party Eesti 200 was followed by several condemning opinions: the campaign was described as incitement to hostility among nations, which, among other things, allows Russia to create misconceptions of Estonia in the propaganda war,[43] as the next and hatred-inciting political move,[44] as contradicting the Advertising Act[45] and as an example of the party’s goal to construe a new Estonian identity, where the historical Estonians or the Estonian nation has no place.[46]

Trends

The activities of the last two years in integration are based on the objectives of earlier governments and the integration plan approved in 2014: implementation of the planned policies was continued, which was supported by a number of non-governmental actors’ initiatives. The new integration plan for 2021–2030 is being drawn up, but at the time of writing this review there is no clarity on what the main directions and the planned activities of migration and integration policy are for the next decade. Will the changed migration flows, the political context and the increased representation of conservative forces in the government bring about major changes to principles of migration and integration? This will become clear in the coming years.

The migration statistics of persons arriving in Estonia indicates a significant change in Estonia’s migration processes: the number of foreign students, foreign workers arriving under short-term work permits and visas, the return of Estonians have increased, and the immigration quota was reached before the end of the year (in the summer in 2018 and on 2 January in 2019).[47] Due to the situation on the labour market in Estonia and fulfilling of the immigration quota, the number of workers on short-term work permits and visas or on a visa-free basis has increased dramatically in the recent years: in 2017 ca 7600, in 2018 ca 20,000, and in 2019 presumably ca 30,000 persons.[48]

Despite the desire to stay in Estonia long-term the trainings of the adaptation programme containing topic-based training and Estonian language lessons on A1 level are not available to persons arriving on the basis of short-term work permits and visas.[49] As of autumn of 2019, foreign students before receiving their residence permits, returnees to Estonia, diplomats and their family members and new immigrants who have lived in Estonia for longer than five years are also ineligible to participate in the adaptation programme.[50] Also, the access to (family) medical care, education of their children (in kindergarten and school) and several other support services, which are offered only to persons who have received a residence permit, are restricted to persons staying in Estonia on the basis of a visa.[51] In the experts’ estimate the foreigners in Estonia who have visas are very likely to become victims of exploitation as they are not aware of their rights in Estonia.[52]

The increase of migration volumes and diversification of immigration groups and forms of short-term migration have a significant impact on states’ ability to cope with immigration, ensure social cohesion and integrate immigrants.[53] Therefore, in Estonia, as is done in other developed states and cities, it is important to pay increasing attention to rethinking and developing integration politics in a way that could support inclusion of various immigrants, prevent their marginalisation and reduce risks to law and order.[54]

In 2018–2019 the issue continues to be with spread of xenophobia in the society,[55] politicians’ insulting statements[56] and acts of violence.[57] The employers have increasingly been exposed to the phobia of foreigners, and are increasingly more concerned that the politicians’ statements inciting xenophobia are driving valuable workforce away from Estonia.[58] According to the man from Iran living in Estonia and working as a top specialist, he personally knows 20–30 persons who could work in Estonia right now, but have moved elsewhere, because they cannot handle the hostility here.[59] According to the study published in 2018 Estonia loses 10,903 euros as a result of direct taxes when a highly educated employee stays out of the labour market for a year or leaves Estonia.[60] In the face of increasing foreign recruitment charges and increasing competition for top specialists, the alleviation of the specialists’ drought in Estonia is becoming increasingly difficult.[61]

Recommendations

  • In order to set long-term courses and goals and solve several problem areas of migration, integration and citizenship policy, it is necessary to organise a debate including the entire society and develop a comprehensive vision of future for Estonia in the world of changed forms of migration and migration flows.
  • Several issues await a societal discussion, the political decision, the solution and activities: multiple citizenship of adult Estonian citizens, a uniform school system, Estonian language learning organisation, the immigration quota, labour needs, etc.
  • Due to increase of migration volumes and diversification of (short-term) forms of migration, it is increasingly important to take into account the various groups of foreigners and compatriots (including persons of undefined nationality, foreign students, short-term workers, diplomats, applicants and beneficiaries of international protection, immigrants’ family members, returnees, expatriate Estonians, etc).
  • When creating various services supporting adaptation and adapting the public services, more attention should be paid to services’ target groups, so that people with similar needs are not excluded from the service due to unreasonable restrictions.
  • Continuously and increasingly more attention should be paid to dealing with the issue of xenophobia, in order to avoid the paradoxical situation, where, on one hand, public money is poured into attracting foreign talent to Estonia and supporting their recruitment, but on the other hand, the foreigners and their (Estonian) family members are driven away from Estonia because of negative attitude towards them.

Case description

Zahed* is a 33-year-old top specialist from Iran working in Estonia as an engineering project manager. He has a 2-year-old son with his Estonian spouse. Because of the darker colour of their skin, both the man and the couple’s son have received negative comments in the streets and in shops. Zahed has decided to move away from Estonia with his family at the first opportunity, because he can no longer endure people’s racial prejudices and the verbal attacks. The family has not turned to the police to combat insults as they feel that nothing official can be done against the people who are offensive and stare. According to Zahed, he is the only one from his circle of friends who has stayed in Estonia: he says all of his other friends – often with their Estonian spouses – have already left for the same reasons. When the family moves away Estonia loses two of its citizens and one highly educated specialist, whose position will be difficult to fill.

Zahed’s story can be read about in depth in 15 April 2019 article published in Eesti Päevaleht called “Black! Go home! Iran’s top specialist must leave Estonia with his family because of racism”.[62]

* The name has been changed


[1] Ministry of Culture. 2014. Lõimuv Eesti 2020: Lõimumisvaldkonna arengukava [Integrating Estonia: integration plan].

[2] Ministry of Culture. 2019. Alates maist on Eestisse tagasipöördujatele avatud uus nõustamisteenus [A new counselling service for returnees to Estonia is available from May], 28 May 2019.

[3] Pajumets, M. 2018. Marion Pajumets: mis kasu saab Eesti välistudengitest? [Marion Pajumets: how does Estonia benefit from foreign students], 28 May 2018.

[4] Ministry of Culture. 2018. Lõimuv Eesti 2030 arengukava koostamise infoveeb [Information web for drawing up of the Integrating Estonia 2030 development plan], 29 October 2019.

[5] Riigikogu. 2018. Välismaalaste seaduse muutmise seadus 590 SE [The Act amending the Aliens Act], 02 May 2019.

[6] Riigikogu. 2018. Välismaalaste seaduse muutmise ja sellega seonduvalt teiste seaduste muutmise seadus [Amending the Aliens Act and other related acts] 617SE, 16 April 2019.

[7] Riigikogu. 2018. Kodakondsuse seaduse täiendamise seadus 629SE [Citizenship Act Amendment Act], 21 September 2018.

[8] Administrative Law Chamber of the Supreme Court 02 March 2018 judgment no 3-16-1810/35.

[9] University of Tartu. 2018. Aastatel 1918-1940 opteerimise teel Eesti kodakondsuse omandamise küsimusi käsitlenud õiguse ja halduspraktika analüüs [Analysis of acts of law and administrative practice on acquisition of Estonian citizenship by opting in in 1918–1940].

[10] Rutto, A. 2018. Abhaasia eestlase Alli Rutto avalik kiri ametnikule: kaitsmise asemel võtate hoopis kodakondsuse ära? [Open letter of Abhkazian Estonian Alli Rutto to officials: instead of protection you will remove the citizenship?] Postimees, 15 October 2018.

[11] National Audit Office. 2019. Täiskasvanute eesti keele õppe korraldus ja riiklik rahastamine [Organisation of Estonian language training for adults and the state funding], 21 August 2019

[12] National Audit Office. 2019. Riigikontroll: täiskasvanute eesti keele õppe korraldus vajab selget vastutajat [National Audit Office: organisation of Estonian language training for adults needs a somebody clearly responsible for it], 28 August 2019

[13] Estonian Centre for Applied Research Centar and Tallinn University. 2018. Eesti keelest erineva emakeelega täiskasvanute eesti keele õpe lõimumis- ja tööhõivepoliitikas: kvaliteet, mõju ja korraldus [Estonian language training for adults in integration and employment politics: quality, effect and organisation].

[13] Raud, R. 2019. Mitmekultuurilisus: teoreetiline raamistik. Teema kokkuvõte #6 [Multiculturalism: theoretical framework. Summary #6], Tallinn University.

[15] Ehala, M. 2019. Mitmikidentiteedi ja ühtekuuluvuse võimalused ja väljakutsed Eestis. Teema kokkuvõte #7 [Opportunities and challenges of multiple identity and cohesion in Estonia. Summary #7], University of Tartu.

[16] Tamm, M., Raud. R., Ehala, M. and Vetik. 2018. Mitmekultuurilise Eesti ühiskonna ja lõimumise kontseptuaalsed alused. Teema kokkuvõte #2 [Conceptual principles of Estonia’s multicultural society and integration. Summary #2], Tallinn University.

[17] Karabeškin, L. ja Derman, N. 2018. Eesti romade kuuluvustunne ja osalemine ühiskonnaelus [Sense of belonging of Estonian Romas and participation in societal life] and the Estonian Human Rights Centre. 2019. Kodanikuühiskonna seirearuanne riikliku romasid puudutava integratsioonistrateegia rakendamise kohta Eestis [Civil society monitoring report on implementing the national Roma integration strategy in Estonia].

[18] Estonian Human Rights Centre. 2018. Uuring romade elust ja õigustest Eestis [Survey on the life and rights of Roma in Estonia], 07 July 2019.

[19] European Commission/EACEA/Eurydice. 2019. Integrating Students from Migrant Backgrounds into Schools in Europe: National Policies and Measures, Office of the European Union.

[20] the International Organization for Migration (IOM). 2019. Välismaalaste kohanemine Eesti kohalikes omavalitsustes [Adaptation of foreigners in local governments in Estonia].

[21] CIVITTA. 2019. Siseministeeriumi ja Kultuuriministeeriumi ESFi kohanemis- ja lõimumismeetme rakendamise vahehindamine perioodil 2014–2018 [Ministry of Interior Affairs and Ministry of Cultural Affairs interim evaluation of implementation of ESF adaptation and integration measure in 2014–2018].

[22] InterNations. 2019. Expat Insider 2019 Survey Reveals: The Best and Worst Destinations to Live and Work in 2019.

[23] Estonian Cooperation Assembly. 2019. Eesti inimarengu aruanne 2018/2019 [Estonian Human Development Report 2018/2019].

[24] Institute of Baltic Studies. 2019. Uussisserändajate Eestis kohanemise analüüs [Analysis of adaptation of new immigrants to Estonia].

[25] Speakly

[26] WalkTalk

[27] Multikey.app

[28] Käänuk

[29] Välisspetsialistide värbamise teekond [The route of recruiting foreign specialists]

[30] Roadmap for international recruitment

[31] EAS Enterprise Estonia. Välisvärbamise toetus.

[32] Integration Foundation. Tagasipöördujale [For returnees].

[33] Integration Foundation. Tagasipöördumistoetus [Return allowance].

[34] International house of Estonia (IHE)

[35] Ülemiste Tervisemaja [Ülemiste Health Centre]

[36] Õhtuleht. 2018. Juhtkiri | Jant Abhaasia eestlase kodakondsuse ümber [Editorial. Farce around citizenship of Abkhazian Estonians], 25 November 2018.

[37] ERR, 2018. Kaljulaid nimetas Abhaasia eestlannaga toimuvat riigile piinlikuks [Kaljulaid said that what is happening with the Abkhazian Estonian is embarrassing for the state], 25 October 2018

[38] ERR, 2018. Madise: inimesed ei tohi õigusküsimuste ajas muutumise tõttu kannatada [Madise: people should not suffer because legal issues change in time], 07 December 2018.

[39]Eesti 200 seisukoht [Opinion of political party Estonia 200], Isamaa seisukoht [Opinion of Pro Patria] and Keskerakonna seisukoht[Opinion of the Centre Party].

[40] Ministry of Interior Affairs, 2018. Alli Rutto saab Eesti kodaniku passi [Alli Rutto will receive an Estonian passport], 10 December 2018.

[41] ERR. 2019. Helme vaidleb ministeeriumi ideega lubada Abhaasia eestlastele kahte passi [Helme argues against the idea of the ministry to allow two passports for the Abkhazian Estonian], 06 June 2019.

[42] Delfi. 2019. Eestlased ja venelased saatis trammipeatuse eraldi nurkadesse Eesti 200 [Estonia 200 sent Estonians and Russions into different corners of the tram stop], 07 January 2019.

[43] Eesti Päevaleht. 2019. Urmas Reinsalu Kristina Kallasele: jätke meid oma eestluse vaenulike teooriatega rahule! [Urmas Reinsalu to Kristina Kallas: leave us alone with your hostile theories of being Estonian], 08 January 2019.

[44] Eesti Päevaleht. 2019. Riina Solman: Eesti200 järgmine provokatiivne ja vaenu õhutav poliitvõte, kuhu edasi? [Riina Solman: Estonia 200’s next provocative and hate inciting political move, where to next?], 07 January 2019.

[45] ERR. 2019. Tallinna ettevõtlusameti hinnagul eksis Eesti 200 reklaamiseaduse vastu [According to Tallinn business board Estonia 200 did contravene against the Advertising Act], 08 January 2019.

[46] Eesti Päevaleht. 2019. Urmas Sutrop: Eesti 200 ja Kristina Kallas tahavad konstrueerida uut eestlust, kus ajaloolisel eestlaskonnal ega rahvusel ei ole mingit kohta [Urmas Sutrop: Estonia 200 and Kristina Kallas want to construe a new Estonian nationality, which has no place for historic Estonians or nation], 08 January 2019.

[47] CIVITTA. 2019. Siseministeeriumi ja Kultuuriministeeriumi ESFi kohanemis- ja lõimumismeetme rakendamise vahehindamine perioodil 2014–2018 [Ministry of Interior Affairs and Ministry of Cultural Affairs interim evaluation of implementation of ESF adaptation and integration measure in 2014–2018].

[48] Ministry of Interior Affairs. Kodakondsus ja ränne [Citizenship and migration].

[49] CIVITTA. 2019. Siseministeeriumi ja Kultuuriministeeriumi ESFi kohanemis- ja lõimumismeetme rakendamise vahehindamine perioodil 2014–2018 [Ministry of Interior Affairs and Ministry of Cultural Affairs interim evaluation of implementation of ESF adaptation and integration measure in 2014–2018].

[50] Ibid.

[51] Institute of Baltic Studies. 2019. Uussisserändajate Eestis kohanemise analüüs [Analysis of adaptation of new immigrants in Estonia].

[52] CIVITTA. 2019. Siseministeeriumi ja Kultuuriministeeriumi ESFi kohanemis- ja lõimumismeetme rakendamise vahehindamine perioodil 2014–2018 [Ministry of Interior Affairs and Ministry of Cultural Affairs interim evaluation of implementation of ESF adaptation and integration measure in 2014–2018].

[53] Castles,S., Hein de Haas, M., and J. Miller. 2014. The Age of Migration. International Population Movements in the Modern World, 5th edition. Palgrave Macmillan.

[54] Martiniello, M., and Rath, J. 2014. An Introduction to Immigrant Incorporation Studies: European Perspective, Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.

[55] Postimees. 2019. Margus Parts: vana hea võõraviha [Margus Parts: good old-fashioned xenophobia], 17 February 2019.

[56] Delfi. 2019. Mart Helme vihakõne koosolekul: Tallinnas on plahvatuslikult kasvanud neegrite hulk. Kui neile vastu pead koputada, siis see on õõnespuit! [Mart Helme at hate speech meeting: The number of negros in Tallinn has explosively increased. If you knock against their head, it’s hollow wood], 01 June 2019.

[57] Postimees, 2019. Mu rusikad ootavad neid, postitas mees ja peksis immigrandi läbi [My fists are waiting for them, posted the man and beat up an immigrant], 29 March 2019.

[58] Ärileht. 2019. Võõraviha on Eestis sealmaal, et eestlane küsib, kas ta peab ukrainlasega koos töötama [Xenophobia in Estonia has reached the point where an Estonian asks if he has to work with an Ukranian], 26 July 2019.

[59] Eesti Päevaleht. 2019. Must! Mine koju! Iraani tippspetsialist peab rassismi tõttu perega Eestist lahkuma [Black! Go home! Iranian top specialist must leave Estonia with his family because of racism], 15 April 2019.

[60] Masso, M., Järve, J., Laurimäe, M,. Piirits, M., Koppe, K., Anspal, S., and Kivi, L, H. 2018. Tööga seotud sotsiaalkaitse mudelid ja nende sobivus alternatiivsete tööturuarengute korral Eestis [Work-related social protection models and their compatibility in case of alternative labour market developments in Estonia].

[61] Äripäev. 2018. Kukesamm lähemale spetsialistipõua leevendamisele [A tiny step closer to alleviating the drought of top specialists],  27 August 2018.

[62] Eesti Päevaleht. 2019. Must! Mine koju! Iraani tippspetsialist peab rassismi tõttu perega Eestist lahkuma [Black! Go home! Iranian top specialist must leave Estonia with his family because of racism], 15 April 2019.


Author

  • Triin Pohla on analüütik Balti Uuringute Instituudis (IBS), kus tema peamisteks töö- ja huvivaldkondadeks on rände, lõimumisega ja rahvusvähemustega seonduv. Triin omandas bakalaureusekraadi Tartu Ülikoolis riigiteaduste erialal ning 2016. aastal kaitses rahvustunnete ja rändehoiakute vahelisi seoseid analüüsinud magistritöö Tartu Ülikoolis võrdleva poliitika erialal

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